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Being a Golden Hawk means more than just cheering on our (really good) varsity teams – it means being a student who cares about your community, who works hard in the classroom, and who takes advantage of all the learning opportunities that can happen outside the classroom, too.


PD100: Models of Policing (0.5 credit)

This course reviews international models of policing to trace the development of modern police response strategies in Canada. The course traces the historical, social and political contexts surrounding the incorporation of police response strategies over time. Students will theorize about how the role and nature of police work differs under each model of policing, and identify solutions to problems that modern strategies face.

Learning Outcomes

  • Differentiate between underlying philosophies, principles, and response strategies of community policing, crime control policing, problem-oriented policing, and intelligence-led policing;
  • Historicize and contextualize the use of current police response strategies;
  • Recognize the role technological advancements have played in shaping modern police response strategies;
  • Explain the importance of developing police-community collaborative partnerships and recognize the limits of law enforcement-exclusive interventions;
  • Outline changes in police organizational structure and identify the benefits and limits to each model; and
  • Identify challenges emerging in modern forms of policing, including intelligence-led policing.

PD101: Communications for Policing (0.5 credit)

This course will provide an introduction to research and theories in the field of Interpersonal Communications and how this information relates to individuals inside and outside of organizations.  Communication skills are probably the single most important skill required to be successful in business and in personal relationships.  Research has shown that effective communications skills are as necessary to career advancement as technical competence, work experience and academic qualifications. In addition, this course focuses on building and enhancing your knowledge in the kinds of communications skills that employers expect.

Learning Outcomes

  • Identify and explain the basic principles of interpersonal communications;
  • Discuss how different perceptions will have a positive and/or negative affect on communication;
  • Identify concepts in communication climates that will facilitate interpersonal and group communication;
  • Demonstrate an understanding of appropriate and effective ways of minimizing conflict using communication;
  • Examine the role of self in interpersonal relationships;
  • Investigate and explain how verbal and nonverbal messages influence the communications process;
  • Discuss the impact of culture in shaping perception and differences in communication outcomes;
  • Identify which behaviours negatively impact current relationships and how to alter those behaviours to improve a relationship; and
  • Analyze and discuss how listening skills can impact what is perceived by all members of the communicative process.

PD200: Police Psychology (0.5 credit)

This course will introduce students to the techniques used to measure and assess police personnel, and deepen their understanding of the on-the-job experiences that can affect the mental health of police personnel.  Students will learn about intelligence and personality testing, the effects of experiencing trauma and compassion fatigue, the importance of stress management, self-care and fit-for-duty assessments.

Learning Outcomes

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the effects and consequences of experiencing trauma and critical incidents on a police officer’s psyche;
  • Adopt strategies for critical incident stress management and understand how fit-for-duty evaluations are conducted; and
  • Critically assess how the socialization process within a police force may contribute to development of a “police personality” and is a hegemonic force on non-mainstream police officers.

PD201: Intercultural Communication in Policing (0.5 credit)

Intercultural Communication in Policing introduces students to the field of intercultural communication in order to recognize the challenges faced by law enforcement officials in understanding and interpreting the behaviours, actions and attitudes of individuals in conflict within their own communities, within the larger community and with the law. Topics include postmodern theory, post Marxism and cultural studies, critical race theory, race, racism and representation.

Learning Outcomes

  • Examine how unconscious assumptions and deeply held cultural values can affect the behaviours of law enforcement officers with individuals in the community;
  • Improve officers’ communication effectiveness and problem solving abilities within an ethnically and culturally diverse country;
  • Analyze conflict situations from an intercultural perspective with a view to de-escalating conflict in interactions with the community;
  • Recognize the effect of privilege, power imbalances, and oppression in intercultural interactions and identify how these effects manifest themselves in infractions with the law;
  • Articulate some causes of racial stereotypes and examine the impact of racial profiling to minimize further damage to communities; and
  • Recognize the importance of collaboration with ethnical, racial, cultural, and gender groups to increase police relations within marginalized communities.

PD202: Leadership and Career Development in Law Enforcement (0.5 credit)

Increasingly, leadership skills, capacity and awareness are needed by members of today’s law enforcement organizations. This course provides an overview of the leadership approaches – historical and contemporary, the role of context in determining leadership approaches, the crucial relationship of leadership and followership and leadership strategies for building relationships and motivating others. Self-awareness is a fundamental element to leadership development. Through self-assessments and leadership skills development exercises you will also have the opportunity to gain insights into your own leadership style – the strength of your style and ways to enhance your leadership skills and capacity.

Learning Outcomes

  • Identify and explain the basic principles of effective leadership;
  • Discuss the role of vision in the leadership process;
  • Explain why ethical leadership is foundational to good leadership;
  • Discuss practical steps to empowering others through delegation and creating an organizational climate that attracts and keeps good people;
  • Identify factors that influence the motivation of followers;
  • Discuss the role of the leader as a teacher and developer of people; and
  • Discuss the role of the leader in helping people through change.

Also, through self-assessments and self-reflection exercises, you should learn more about:

  • The leadership qualities you already possess.
  • How susceptible are you to leadership influence?
  • In which situations are you most likely to lead?
  • Why would you want to be a leader?
  • What is your approach to leadership?
  • What motivates you?
  • How can you develop your own leadership abilities?

PD203: Diversity and Inclusion within the Force (0.5 credit)

Introduces students to topics to contribute to a working environment that is equitable and free of discrimination, harassment and disruptive of systems of advantage. Students will recognize and welcome the strengths of diversity within the force. Topics include the difference between diversity and inclusion (and the benefits of each), hegemonic masculinity, privilege, intersectionality and allyship.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Articulate how unconscious assumptions and deeply held cultural values can affect the behaviours of law enforcement officers when interacting with colleagues;
  • Recognize the effect of privilege, power imbalances, and oppression in intercultural interactions within the police force, and identify how these effects manifest themselves in promotion and retention issues;
  • Become aware of diverse experiences in the workplace, including those involving discrimination, differential access, and treatment;
  • Influence how the public responds to members of the police force; and
  • Embody approaches to address issues of equity, diversity and inclusion within the police force by becoming allies with colleagues.

PD204: Reasoning and Argumentation in the Criminal Justice System (0.5 credit)

This course focuses on developing the principles of logical reasoning and argumentation. Students will be able to identify arguments, analyze their structure and critically assess their validity. By learning the necessary skills to analyze informal reasoning, students will improve their reasoning, cognitive, communication and critical thinking skills, contributing to their ability to present sound arguments.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Classify, evaluate, and compare merits of different forms of arguments;
  • Construct arguments based on logical principles;
  • Identify how internal biases, cultural influences, power dynamics, and other social contexts manifest themselves in communication;
  • Craft and effectively deliver sound arguments to an audience;
  • Demonstrate an ability to non-defensively respond to criticism and incorporate feedback into revisions of arguments;
  • Explain the role played by communicative mediums in the presentation of arguments;
  • Differentiate between deductive and inductive forms of reasoning used in argumentation; and
  • Identify formal and informal argumentative fallacies.

PD205: Psychology and Law Enforcement (0.5 credit)

This course will apply psychological principles and concepts to law enforcement. Students will increase their competency and understanding of interviewing, interrogation, hostage negotiation, eyewitness testimony and offender profiling.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Enhance previously learned and developed interviewing, forensic assessment, deception-detecting, interrogation, and hostage negotiation strategies;
  • Critically assess potentially faulty or misleading evidence, including false confessions and mistaken eyewitness testimony;
  • Conduct threat assessments for a wide array of behaviour including terrorism, stalking, school shootings, and targeted violence; and
  • Construct evidence-based psychological profiles of offenders.

PD300: Research Methods I (Quantitative Methods) (0.5 credit)

An introduction to statistical and geographic research methods, with an emphasis on the understanding and use of these procedures in law enforcement. Students will become familiar with designing research questions, constructing hypotheses, identifying types of variables, assessing reliability and validity, selecting appropriate research methods and understanding elementary quantitative and spatial data analysis. 

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Conduct elementary statistical data analysis related to policing, including tests of association and independence;
  • Demonstrate their understanding of basic assumptions and analytical approaches when working with parametric and non-parametric data;
  • Apply appropriate quantitative and geographic research techniques in analyzing and interpreting data;
  • Create, analyze and interpret graphical representations of data;
  • Effectively understand, translate, and communicate data analysis outputs; and
  • Conduct elementary spatial analysis related to policing, including distance and travel time estimation, spatial autocorrelation, hot-spot analysis, and proximity analysis.

PD301: Policing a Complex and Diverse Community (0.5 credit)

Examines key historical and sociopolitical issues in law enforcement practices to recognize their impact on marginalized populations. Students will expand their cultural awareness and improve intercultural communication skills to work more effectively and judiciously in a diverse community. Topics include critical race theory, cultural diversity and sensibility, tactical communication practices and racial profiling.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Identify some of the causes of overrepresentation of ethnic minorities within the Canadian criminal justice system and avoid practices that contribute to overrepresentation;
  • Engage in effective intercultural communication while employing apprehension tactics in accordance to the Canadian Charter of Rights, 1982;
  • Accurately predict potential problems in dealing with marginalized populations while ensuring public safety and recognize differing cultural perceptions of law enforcement officials;
  • Recognize and challenge institutionalized forms of racism and discrimination with fellow officers and embody anti-racism practices within the community; and
  • Identify and formulate proper criminality profiling tactics to control, monitor, and prevent crime.

PD302: Indigenous Communities and Policing (0.5 credit)

This course examines historical trauma and its generational impacts on First Nation Peoples. Students will learn from elders to better understand respectful ways of practicing law enforcement in First Nations communities and with Indigenous Peoples. They will learn to engage and acknowledge the varying supports and integral roles law enforcement officers offer in First Nations communities. The goal of this course is for law enforcement officials to gain a diverse understanding of the issues that face First Nations communities.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Develop the ability to analyze information and statements from community members in order to create a safe and secure First Nation community;
  • Gain a diverse understanding of the issues that plague First Nation communities;
  • Acknowledge the varying supports and integral roles law enforcement officers offer in remote First Nation communities;
  • Advocate for systematic changes from community partners and stakeholders to increase the overall quality of life for First Nation communities and law enforcement officials located in remote areas;
  • Identify the current policing models in First Nations communities to address the root causes, and patterns of criminal activities; and
  • Collaborate with stakeholders, Elders, Ontario Association of Chiefs of Police (OACP), and First Nation communities to identify appropriate policing models

PD303: Mental Health, Addiction, and Crime (0.5 credit)

This course focuses on the interaction between mental health, addiction and crime as faced by officers in the line of duty. This course exposes students to various mental health and substance abuse disorders using real case scenarios alongside the students’ personal experiences. Students will become familiar with risk assessment and management techniques, anti-drug legislation in Canada, the Controlled Drugs and Substance Act and legislative progress made on the War on Drugs. By the end of this course, students will be aware of the victimization/stigma associated with mental health, substance abuse disorders and criminal justice policy.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Critically review the war on drugs prohibition and tactics and formulate and apply new tactics while in the field;
  • Recognize the non-verbal and verbal signs of individuals suffering from mental health issues in order to courteously and respectfully communicate with both suspects and victims;  
  • Recognize the elements of acculturation that will affect the mental health of newcomer Canadians, marginalized groups, refugees, etc.;
  • Identify and recognize the signs and symptoms of impairment from being under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or other substances that may cause harm to individuals, others, or their property;  
  • Demonstrate knowledge of appropriate protocol to apprehend a suspect suffering from either mental health/drug addiction while ensuring one’s own safety and the safety of fellow officers;
  • Approach individuals suffering from mental health/substance abuse impairment and accurately record any statements or observations objectively; and
  • Assess the efficacy of anti-drug legislation and review competing models i.e. harm reduction etc.

PD304: Domestic Violence (0.5 credit)

This course provides an in-depth analysis of issues surrounding domestic violence, including gendered power relationships, under the broader framework of the sociology of gender. Students will examine the various manifestations of domestic violence, including physical, sexual, psychological, social and economic abuse of intimate partners, children and elders. The types of interventions used to address domestic violence, as well as their costs, benefits and limitations will be considered.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Analyze key domestic violence concepts under the broader framework of the sociology of gender, including gender roles, gender attitudes, gender identity, gender socialization, and patriarchy;
  • Define the nature, prevalence, and scope of domestic violence at local, national and global levels;
  • Demonstrate knowledge about sociological and cultural risk factors of domestic violence;
  • Outline the history of domestic violence legislation in Canada, and recognize the limits of interventions by the criminal justice system, health care, and social services when addressing domestic violence;
  • Identify and explain domestic violence myths;
  • Describe the stages within the intergenerational and relational cycles of violence; and
  • Recommend domestic violence intervention and prevention strategies.

PD305: Media, Social Media, and Crime (0.5 credit)

This course will examine the impacts of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube on law enforcement and investigation practices. Students will learn how to effectively communicate with the general public through social media platforms. Students will be exposed to the current policies and legislation dealing with Social Media including the Freedom of Information Act, protection of privacy and delivering sensitive information. Conversely, students will be exposed to cultural criminal theories, critical Marxist theories and Foucauldian theory. In addition, students will identify how real-time virtual public platforms allow law enforcement officials to discover, conduct and analyze evidence in solving online crimes. In turn, law enforcement officials will be able to use social platforms as agents of social control to assist in reducing the amount of online/virtual deviance, i.e., cyberbullying.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Effectively use intelligence gathering techniques through social media platforms to assist in solving crimes;
  • Develop and promote mutual goals in solving crimes by collaborating with the general public;
  • Examine current policies and legislations dealing with freedom of information the protection of privacy, and deliver sensitive information;
  • Articulate the importance of police presence within social media platforms and theorize the possible implications or mistrust from the general public;
  • Use discretion, courtesy, and professionalism when posting information on social media platforms;
  • Acquire periodic and constructive feedback from the general public using social media platforms in order to increase police presence within the community and online; and
  • Identify the challenges involved with online policing and formulate new approaches in accordance to all pertinent provincial or territorial Human Rights Codes, Charter of Rights and Freedoms,1982, Canadian Human Rights Act, 1985, etc.

PD306: Ethics, Corruption, and Police Accountability (0.5 credit)

This course will explore contemporary issues of ethics, corruption and accountability for law enforcement personnel. Specifically, this course will also explore how police institutions, the media, the public and overseeing bodies respond to allegations of unethical or improper conduct by law enforcement. Students will apply relevant criminological theories to understand well-known cases of police corruption, racial profiling, noble cause policing and use of excessive force. Students will understand how the powers afforded to police may be used to both uphold and undermine legitimate police practices.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Articulate the importance of positive police-community relations and theorize about how police misconduct and deviance impairs public trust and perceived legitimacy of police institutions;
  • Apply an intersectional approach to understanding how police misconduct influences citizens’ perceptions of police;
  • Recommend institutional guidelines to prevent police misconduct at the supervisory, middle-level, and frontline officer ranks;
  • Recognize how opportunities for police misconduct, corruption, and deviance are created within the working environment and subculture of police officers;
  • Critically evaluate the efficacy of Early Warning Systems (EWS), Internal Affairs (IA), and the Special Investigations Unit (SIU) as responses to police misconduct; and
  • Adopt leadership strategies to assess and manage identifiable forms of police misconduct.

PD400: Research Methods II (Qualitative Methods and Legal Research) (0.5 credit)

This course provides students with training in qualitative and legal research methodologies. The content of this course is divided into three sections. The first segment is designed to introduce students to the various epistemological differences between qualitative and quantitative methodology. The second segment exposes students to qualitative research design including research ethics, theoretical grounding, data collection techniques and organization, interpretation and reporting of data findings.  The third section provides students with the opportunity to build on their knowledge, communication and analytical skills to make effective and legally defensible arguments.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202, PD300.

Learning Outcomes

  • Develop the ability to design, gather, review, evaluate, and interpret information using qualitative methodology;
  • Summarize and synthesize information in a clear and concise manner;
  • Communicate information and arguments based on qualitative analyses in both oral and written form;
  • Compare and contrast the epistemological differences between different data methodologies, while accurately selecting the appropriate methods of analysis;
  • Demonstrate competencies in both qualitative and legal research methods;
  • Critically analyze relevant information to make effective and legally defensible arguments for actions and decisions in the field; and
  • Understand how to use online resources to conduct statue/regulation/legislation research.

PD401: Civil Unrest: The State's Use of Force Against its Citizens (0.5 credit)

This course is designed to allow students to build upon either their work experience and/or previous security training. In this course, students will learn how to apply use of force theory along with the basic physical skills required to de-escalate/escape, mediate or gain control of human crisis situations. Students will use a multidisciplinary theoretical approach to identify the root causes of civil unrest and the importance of social media. Using case studies as examples, students will learn how to communicate, manage and ensure officer safety mechanisms such as principles of riot control that are set in place during periods of citizens/ civil unrest. Topics include the legal provisions for the use of force, the “fleeing felon” rule, police acts and standards and liability of police use of force. By the end of the course, students will have the knowledgeable and transfer skills to control and prevent civil riots using the appropriate force.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Apply knowledge and self-control measures  to control/ prevent civil riots  and act in accordance to use of force, search and seizure procedures;
  • Conduct oneself in a professional manner during periods of civil unrest that do not undermine the integrity of law enforcements;
  • Effectively communicate the appropriate powers of arrest in compliance with the Canadian Charter of Rights, 1982, and applicable Provincial/Federal codes, acts, and regulations;
  • To identify the root causes of civil unrest and monitor social media platforms in order to formulate tactical approaches to de-escalate the crowd;
  • Demonstrate confidence when applying law enforcement tactics as a team during times of civilian protests;
  • Implement strategies to maintain team cohesion during crisis/conflict situations;
  • Understand the various levels of responses in order to reduce civil unrest and security of fellow officers; and
  • Recognize a demonstrated threat and differentiate when it is appropriate to employ a less lethal force or resort to a lethal use of force.

PD402: Indigenous Peoples’ Political Structures (0.5 credit)

First Nations Political Structures introduces students to First Nations Peoples’ laws and institutions, and criminal justice systems. In this course, students will gain awareness of the importance of preserving Indigenous justice systems. Students will develop an understanding of the effects of Western judicial systems and the strains they create for First Nations Peoples relationships with Western governments. Topics include indigenous identities, government policy implications, tensions between law enforcement officers and Indigenous Peoples on and off reserves, self-development and colonialism.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202, PD302.

Learning Outcomes

  • Become aware of the importance of preserving of Indigenous justice systems;
  • Will use the knowledge and transferable skills to ease tensions between law enforcement officers on reserves;
  • Analyze and assist community members/elders to advocate for systematic changes and resources to improve First Nation autonomy;
  • Recognize the complexities associated with advocating for First Nation political structures and will develop amicable approaches;
  • Compare and contrast western judicial systems and sentencing circles to develop new tactics in law enforcement; and
  • Collaborate with First Nation communities, elders, and other law enforcement officers to understand and assist in preserving Indigenous justice systems.

PD403: Immigration and Conflict Zones (0.5 credit)

An emphasis will be placed on providing law enforcement officers with the necessary skills to recognize, accept and be mindful of ethnic, racial, gender, religious and other forms of diversity within Canada. Using current case examples, students will be able to understand the importance of collaboration/consultation with community agencies, stakeholders and police chiefs to formulate new tactical approaches to crime within conflict zones. By the end of this course, students will have achieved the necessary skills to identify, address and maintain neutrality to resolve/stabilize external involvement with marginalized populations such as people living in poverty, First Nations and ethnic minorities. Additionally, they will have gained the necessary skills in resolving and stabilizing personal conflict within a multicultural workplace.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202, PD301.

Learning Outcomes

  • Apply knowledge of issues surrounding cultural adaptation and intercultural conflict styles to identity potential causes and interpretations of criminal activity in new immigrant populations;
  • Identify, address, and maintain neutrality in resolving crimes and stabilizing situations involving marginalized populations;
  • Determine, assess, and apply strategies in accordance to Canada’s multicultural and ethical law enforcement practices;
  • Demonstrate respect for the ethnic, racial, and religious diversity of all victims, suspects, and witnesses;
  • Maintain accurate and objective records of crimes, conflict, and encounters with repeat offenders for fellow officers; and
  • Develop familiarity with surroundings and populations using evidence based policing procedures to contribute to the tactics that will successfully reduce and prevent crime in violent communities.

PD404: Cybercrime (0.5 credit)

This course offers an in-depth exploration of the legal, social and technical issues related to cybercrime within a globalized context. Emerging legal responses to cybercrime will be discussed with reference to challenges facing law enforcement. Applied issues in cybercrime will also be considered, including the collection of digital forensic evidence, the preservation of rights guaranteed under the Charter and the logistics of leading cybercrime investigations across international jurisdictions. Relevant criminological theory will be used to guide discussions of the methods and motivations of cybercriminals.

Prerequisites: PD100, PD101, PD200, PD201, PD202.

Learning Outcomes

  • Evaluate legislation drafted to combat the occurrence of cybercrime and identify challenges to cyber-enforcement faced by police;
  • Understand how computer and telecommunications equipment is used to engage in common types of cybercrime, including piracy, extortion, child sexual exploitation, electronic vandalism, espionage, and fraud;
  • Identify, classify, and understand the functions of tools used by cybercriminals, including spyware, botnets, rootkits, viruses, keyloggers, hijackers, Trojans, and dialers;
  • Educate the public and law enforcement personnel on how to prevent and investigate various types of cybercrime;
  • Examine the roles that globalization and the digitization of society have played in the expansion of cybercrime; and
  • Theorize about the political and social motivations underlying.
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