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Wilfrid Laurier University Leaf
April 23, 2014
Canadian Excellence

Thijs Bosker (PhD)

Degree: Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Science.  

Hometown: Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Contact information:


B.Sc 2001 Wageningen University (the Netherlands)
M.Sc 2002 Wageningen University (the Netherlands)

Grants and Awards:

Job history:
From 2002 to 2005 I worked at a Non-Governmental Organization in the Netherlands. My work focused on sustainable agriculture, with emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and nutrient management in relation to agriculture. Projects included the protection of surface and groundwater and the development of a biogas installation (use of manure to produce methane).

Research: Studying the effect of a thermomechanical pulp mill effluent on the reproductive system of fish.

With over a 130 pulp and paper mills, the production of pulp and paper is a major industry in Canada. In the past the effluent of these mills has had an impact on the environment. The industry and Government of Canada have the objective to reduce the effect on the environment in a cost-effective manner. Although direct lethal effects of mills on fish are not frequently observed at modern mills, the more subtle non lethal effects are being found in studies. These subtle effects include reduced gonad size and egg production, delays in maturation, changes in secondary sexual characteristics and depress steroid hormones. The effects mentioned are all under the control of the endocrine system. A major focus point of today’s research is therefore on the effect of paper and pulp mill effluent on the fish reproduction and the components in the effluent that are disrupting the endocrine system. The observed effects appear to operate through changes in the ability of fish to control their production of steroid hormones, because of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the effluent.

The goals of my study are to i) identify the waste streams with EDCs in a TMP-mill ii) identify the causative compounds iii) to look at the effect of biotreatment on final effluent and iv) to compare the effects of a different mills on the reproduction of fish.

Supervisor(s)/Lab: Dr. Deborah MacLatchy (WLU) and Dr. Kelly Munkittrick (UNBSJ)

Start date of degree: September 2006

Refereed Publications
Bosker T., N.J. Hoekstra and E.A. Lantinga, 2002. The influence of  feeding strategy on growth and rejection of herbage around dung pats and their decomposition. Journal of Agricultural Science 139, 213–221

Hoekstra, N.J., T. Bosker, and E.A. Lantinga, 2002. Effects of cattle dung from farms with different feeding strategies on germination and initial root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Agriculture,       Ecosystem & Environment 93 (1), 189-196

Non-Refereed Publications
Bosker, T., E. van der Wal, M. Boer, P. Leendertse & B. Aasman, 2005. Clean Water – Farmers show that is it possible – Report 2003-2004. Centre for Agriculture and Environment, Culemborg, the Netherlands

Kool, A. & Bosker, T. 2004. Emissions of greenhouse gasses during application of fermented manure. Centre for Agriculture and Environment, Culemborg, the Netherlands

Bosker, T. P.C. Leendertse, L. Den Boer & J. Hekman, 2003. Development of an environmental seal for the maintenance of public areas. Centre for Agriculture and Environment, Culemborg, the Netherlands

Oosterveer, P., T. Bosker & G. Spaargaren, 2003. Negotiating risks: About (the lack of) trust of consumers in food. Tijdschrift voor Landbouw en Milieu 19 (1).

Wal, E.J. van der & T. Bosker 2002. The development of an environmental indicator for pesticides. Centre for Agriculture and Environment, Culemborg, the Netherlands

MacLatchy, D.L., T. Bosker, S. Melvin, M. Hanson-Lee, M.L. Hewitt and T. Kovacs 2006. Development of partial and full lifecycle Fundulus heteroclitus bioassays to test for hormonally active contaminants in pulp mill effluents.  27th annual meeting of SETAC North America, Montreal, QU. November 2006

Bosker, T., K. Munkittrick, M. Hewitt and D. MacLatchy. Thermomechanical pulp mill effluent effects on reproduction in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Aqautic Toxicity Workshop, Halifax, NS. October 2007.
MacLatchy, D.L. and T. Bosker. Development of a Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) Bioassay for Endocrine Disruption. Estuarine Research Foundation, Providence, RI. November 2007.